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共用题干 Chimpanzees
1 Chimpanzees(黑猩猩)will soon be extinct(灭绝).If the present rate of hunting and habitat(栖息地)destruction continues, then within 20 years, there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy(悲剧).Chimpan-zee extinction may also have profound implications(含意)for the survival of their distant relatives一human beings.
2 In 1975 the biologist Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and chimpanzee genomes(基因组)match by over 98%. Compare this to the mouse, used as model for human disease in lab tests,which shares only 60% of its DNA with us.In fact, chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other species of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically,chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools.These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent priority(优先).But there is another,more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.
3 The chimpanzees" trump card(王牌)comes in the field of medical research. Chimpan-zees are so similar to humans that veterinarians(兽医)often refer to human medical text-books when treating them. Yet chimpanzees do show differences in several key areas.In parti-cular,chimps are much more resistant to a number of major diseases.It is this ability that is so interesting.
4 For example,chimps seem to show a much higher resistance than humans to HIV,the virus that causes AIDS. Indeed,their use as experimental animals in AIDS research has de-clined because they are so resistant.
5 By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing(找到)the place where the chimpan-zee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased resistance to some diseases. This,they hope,will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the production of new drugs or even the altera-tion(改变)of the human genetic sequence. The recently completed human genome sequen-cing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach. Paragraph 2______.

材料题
共用题干
Chimpanzees
1 Chimpanzees(黑猩猩)will soon be extinct(灭绝).If the present rate of hunting and habitat(栖息地)destruction continues, then within 20 years, there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy(悲剧).Chimpan-zee extinction may also have profound implications(含意)for the survival of their distant relatives一human beings.
2 In 1975 the biologist Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and chimpanzee genomes(基因组)match by over 98%. Compare this to the mouse, used as model for human disease in lab tests,which shares only 60% of its DNA with us.In fact, chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other species of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically,chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools.These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent priority(优先).But there is another,more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.
3 The chimpanzees" trump card(王牌)comes in the field of medical research. Chimpan-zees are so similar to humans that veterinarians(兽医)often refer to human medical text-books when treating them. Yet chimpanzees do show differences in several key areas.In parti-cular,chimps are much more resistant to a number of major diseases.It is this ability that is so interesting.
4 For example,chimps seem to show a much higher resistance than humans to HIV,the virus that causes AIDS. Indeed,their use as experimental animals in AIDS research has de-clined because they are so resistant.
5 By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing(找到)the place where the chimpan-zee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased resistance to some diseases. This,they hope,will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the production of new drugs or even the altera-tion(改变)of the human genetic sequence. The recently completed human genome sequen-cing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach. Paragraph 2______.

AReasons for HIV Resistance

BImplications of Chimpanzee Extinction For Humans

CEffective AIDS Treatment

DGenetic Similarities between Chimps and Humans

EChimps"Resistance to HIV

FGenetic Differences Between Chimos and Humans

正确答案

D

答案解析

段落中出现了一个明显的段落主题词chimpanzees“黑猩猩”,除此以外,还有一个词extinct或extinction也可能是该段主题词,因为这个段落只有四个句子,而其中有两个句子分别含有extinct和extinction。备选项中选项B同时包含了这个词,而且选项B中的其他实义词implications , humans也在该段中出现了,因此B可能是答案。该段的主题句是段落最后一句,该句是个观点句,意为“黑猩猩的灭绝也可能对它们的远亲——人类的生存有着深远的意义”。这与选项B的意义一致:选项B意为“黑猩猩的灭绝对于人类的意义”,由此可以进一步确认答案为B。
段落中出现了一个明显的段落主题词chimpanzees“黑猩猩”,除此以外,还有一个词humans也可能是该段主题词,因为这个段落只有六个句子,而其中有三个句子都含有human。既含有human又含有chimpanzee(即chimp)的选项是D项“黑猩猩和人在遗传上的相似性”和F项“黑猩猩和人在遗传上的不同之处”,因此推测答案可能来自这两个选项(提示:备选项中如果出现了有关系的选项,如:正反意义项,意义相近项,结构相似项,则这些有关系的选项中通常会出现答案选项)。这两个选项的不同之处在于一个说相似,一个说不同。因此关注段落中主要谈的是相似还是不同。很容易在段落中注意到这样的结构:hu-man and chimpanzee genomes(基因组)match by over 98%“人和黑猩猩的基因组相似度达到 98%以上”,chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than…“黑猩猩比……更像人”,re-sembling us genetically“在遗传上与我们相似”,由此可知该段主要谈人和黑猩猩在遗传上的相似性,因此该题答案为D。
段落中出现了一个明显的段落主题词chimpanzees“黑猩猩”,但是依据该词并不能判断出答案。段落中出现了一个转折句(段落第三句),该句意为“然而,黑猩猩的确在几个重要的领域中呈现出不同”。(提示:段首处及段尾处出现的转折句可能就是该段主题句)该句意思与F项“黑猩猩和人在遗传上的不同之处”在意义呼应,因此F可能是答案。从该段主要内容来看,段落第二句提到黑猩猩与人类相似,甚至兽医为它们治疗时常常会参考人类的医学书籍,接下来用转折词yet (然而)话锋一转,对比性地提出该段的主题:黑猩猩和人确实有重要的不同之处。提出这个主题(也是该段的观点)之后,接下来对黑猩猩和人之间的不同进行了举例论证。接下来的句子提到“黑猩猩对许多重大疾病更具有抵杭力”,由此可进一步判断出该题答案为F。
段落中出现了一个明显的段落主题词AIDS“艾滋病”,选项C中含有 AIDS,但是选项C中的其他实义词effective“有效的”, treatment“治疗”没有在该段中直接地及间接地出现,因此选项C成为答案的可能性较小。其实该段中还有一个段落主题词resist-ance“抵杭力”或resistant“有抵抗力的”,选项A和选项E分别含有这两个词中的一个,因此这两个选项中可能出现答案选项。选项A意为“对艾滋病病毒有抵杭力的原因”,选项E意为 “黑猩猩对艾滋病病毒的抵抗力”。从该段主要内容来看,该段第一句提到黑猩程对艾滋病病毒有更强的抵抗力,该段第二句(也是最后一句)说明因为黑猩猩对艾滋病病毒有很强的抵抗力,因此现在在艾滋病的研究实验中已经减少了对黑猩猩的使用。可见该段主要谈及的是黑猩猩对艾滋病病毒的抵杭力,因此答案为E。
题干意为“黑猩猩的灭绝可能会影响……”。利用题干中的细节信息短语chimpanzee extinction“黑猩猩灭绝”作为定位线索,这样在第一段找到相关句:Chim-panzees will soon be extinct.If the present rate of hunting and habitat destruction continues, then within 20 years,there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy. Chimpanzee extinction may also have profound implications for the survival of their distant relatives一human beings.相关句为第一段最后一句,该句意为“黑猩猩的灭绝也可能对它们的远亲——人类的生存有着深远的意义”。这表明黑猩猩的灭绝可能会对人类的生存产生影响,因此答案为C项“人类的生存”。
题干意为“在黑猩猩与……之间有不到2%的差异”。利用题干中的细节信息词/短语difference“差异”,less than 2%作为定位线索,这样在第二段找到相关句:In 1975 the biologists Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and ehimparizee genomes match(与difference呼应)by over 98%(与低于2%呼应). Compare this to the mouse,used as model for human disease in lab tests,which shares only 60% of its DNA with us. In fact,chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other spe-cies of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically,chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools. These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent pri-ority. But there is another, more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.相关句(第二段第一句)意为“1975年,生物学家Marie-Claire King和Allan Wilson发现人和黑猩猩的基因组匹配度达到了98%以上”,这意味着人和黑猩猩基因组之间的差异不到2%,因此答案为D项“人的基因组”。
题干意为“科学家们猜想基因在预防黑猩猩患……(疾病)方面起着显著的作用”。利用题干中的细节信息词/短语scientists , genes , significant role作为定位线索,这样在第五段找到相关句:By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing(找到)the place where the chimpanzee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code(与gene呼应)gives chimps their increased re-sistance to some diseases. This,they hope,will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the produc-tion of new drugs or even the alteration of the human genetic sequence. The recently comple-ted human genome sequencing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach.相关句(第五段第一句)意为“通过对黑猩猩的基因组测序并找到黑猩猩的DNA序列与人类的DNA序列不同之处,科学家们希望能够发现哪部分遗传代码增强了黑猩猩抵御一些疾病的能力”,由此判断出B项“一些疾病”是答案。
题干意为“发现黑猩猩的遗传代码将有助于……”。利用题干中的细节信息词/短语discovery, genetic code作为定位线索,这样在第五段找到相关句:By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing the place where the chimpanzee DNA sequence differs from that of humans,scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased

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